Posts Tagged ‘Nursing’

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Evidence-Based Practice and the Curiosity of Nurses

July 27, 2015

By Betsy Todd, MPH, RN, CIC, AJN clinical editor

karen eliot/flickr

by karen eliot/via flickr

In a series of articles in AJN, evidence-based practice (EBP) is defined as problem solving that “integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies and patient care data, and combines it with patient preferences and values and nurse expertise.”

We recently asked AJN’s Facebook fans to weigh in on the meaning of EBP for them. Some skeptics regarded it as simply the latest buzzword in health care, discussed “only when Joint Commission is in the building.” One comment noted that “evidence” can be misused to justify overtreatment and generate more profits. Another lamented that EBP serves to highlight the disconnect between education and practice—that is, between what we’re taught (usually, based on evidence) and what we do (often the result of limited resources).

There’s probably some truth in these observations. But at baseline, isn’t EBP simply about doing our best for patients by basing our clinical practice on the best evidence we can find? AJN has published some great examples of staff nurses who asked questions, set out to answer them, and ended up changing practice.

  • In a June 2013 article, nurses describe how they devised a nurse-directed protocol that resulted in fewer catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).
  • A 2014 article relates how oncology nurses discovered the lack of evidence for the notion that blood can only be transfused through large-bore needles. These nurses were able to make transfusions safer and more comfortable for their patients. Read the rest of this entry ?
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An Oncology Nurse’s Heart: Helping Dying Patients Find Their Own Paths Home

July 24, 2015

Julianna Paradisi, RN, OCN, is an oncology nurse navigator and writes a monthly post for this blog.

Heart Break = Heartache  graphite, charcoal, water color, adhesive strip by julianna paradisi

Heart Break = Heartache
graphite, charcoal, watercolor, adhesive strip, by julianna paradisi

The disadvantage of building a nursing career in oncology is that a fair number of patients die. Despite great advances in treatment, not every patient can be saved. Oncology care providers struggle to balance maintaining hope with telling patients the truth.

Sometimes, telling the truth causes anger, and patients criticize providers for “giving up on me.” In a health care climate that measures a provider’s performance in positive customer satisfaction surveys, paradoxes abound for those working in oncology.

Providers may also be criticized for delivering care that is futile. “Don’t chemo a patient to death” and “A cancer patient should not die in an ICU” are common mantras of merit.

Maybe because I live in Oregon, a state with a Death with Dignity law, or maybe it’s the pioneer spirit of Oregonians, but I don’t meet a lot of patients choosing futile care to prolong the inevitable. In fact, many patients I meet dictate how much treatment they will accept. They grieve when they learn they have incurable cancer, and most choose palliative treatment to reduce symptoms, preserving quality of life as long as possible.

But they also ask questions: “How will I know when to stop treatment?” or “What will the end look like?” Their courage in facing death amazes me. It often brings me to tears, too.

One advantage of building a nursing career in oncology is that I feel no compulsion to hide my tears from a patient during these discussions. In the context of compassionate presence, tears represent emotional authenticity, theirs and mine.

While nurses may sometimes grieve with patients, they can also offer them therapeutic support.

I have developed a few tricks so I don’t let dying patients down during the moments they need me most. My favorite is to ask a patient what he or she does—or, if they’re retired, did—for a living. As I listen to the story, I picture what they looked like in a business suit, wielding a hammer, baking a cake, or writing a novel. I picture her at the head of a classroom, teaching children to read. In my mind I say, “I see you,” and they become their authentic self, not the person cancer tries to reduce to a recliner chair. Read the rest of this entry ?

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Hepatitis A, B, and C: The Latest on Screening, Epidemiology, Prevention, Treatments

July 16, 2015
One of several posters created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to raise awareness that millions of Americans of all ages, races, and ethnicities have hepatitis C—and many don’t know it. Posters are available to order or download for printing at www.cdc.gov/knowmorehepatitis/media/posters.htm. Poster © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

One of several CDC posters intended to raise awareness that millions of Americans of all ages, races, and ethnicities have hepatitis C—and many don’t know it. Posters are available to order or download for printing at http://www.cdc.gov/knowmorehepatitis/media/posters.htm. Poster © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

It’s crucial that nurses in all health care settings stay informed about the changing landscape of viral hepatitis in the United States. Hepatitis affects the lives of millions, too many of whom are unaware that they have been infected.

Right now, there’s good news and bad news about hepatitis in the U.S. While the incidences of hepatitis A and B in the United States have declined significantly in the past 15 years, the incidence of hepatitis C virus infection, formerly stable or in decline, has increased by 75% since 2010. Suboptimal past therapies, insufficient provider awareness, and low screening rates have hindered efforts to improve diagnosis, management, and treatment of viral hepatitis.

The authors of a CE feature in the July issue of AJN, Viral Hepatitis: New U.S. Screening Recommendations, Assessment Tools, and Treatments,” are thoroughly versed in the subject. Corinna Dan is viral hepatitis policy advisor, Michelle Moses-Eisenstein is a public health analyst, and Ronald O. Valdiserri is director, all in the Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Their article succinctly and clearly covers

  • the epidemiology, natural history, and diagnosis of viral hepatitis.
  • new screening recommendations, assessment tools, and treatments.
  • the HHS action plan, focusing on the role of nurses in prevention and treatment.

Read the rest of this entry ?

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The Challenge of Bearing Witness to Patient and Family Suffering

July 8, 2015

“How do I honor this pain so that it teaches and blesses and does not destroy?”

By Jacob Molyneux, AJN senior editor

Illustration by Neil Brennan. All rights reserved.

Illustration by Neil Brennan. All rights reserved.

This month’s Reflections essay (Why?) is by a pediatric chaplain. As the title indicates, it’s about the questions we all ask in the face of suffering and loss. The precipitating event for the author is the baffled, enraged cry of a father who has lost a child, and her own struggles with the impossibility of giving an acceptable answer—to the child’s parents, or to herself as a daily witness of loss and suffering.

How does a chaplain, or for that matter a nurse, witness the pain of patients and their families time and again and keep from either shutting down or being overwhelmed by the stress and emotion? As we’re often reminded, self-care matters or there’s nothing to give the next time: yoga, gardening, humor, family, cooking, whatever works for a person. Is it enough? Yes, and no, says the author. Here’s an excerpt:  Read the rest of this entry ?

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An Unending Series of Challenges: APIC Highlights the ‘New Normal’ in Infection Control

July 6, 2015

By Betsy Todd, MPH, RN, CIC, AJN clinical editor

Panelists to the Opening Plenary, Mary Lou Manning, Michael Bell, CDC, Russell Olmsted, Trinity Health, Phillip W. Smith, Nebraska Biocontainment Unit discuss various topics pertaining to infection control.

APIC panelists (APIC president Mary Lou Manning; Michael Bell, CDC; Russell Olmsted, Trinity Health; Phillip W. Smith, Nebraska Biocontainment Unit) discuss various topics pertaining to infection control.

At the 42nd annual conference of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), held in late June in Nashville, experts from around the world shared information and insights aimed at infection preventionists but of interest to nurses in many practice settings.

APIC president Mary Lou Manning, PhD, CRNP, CIC, FAAN, opened the first plenary with the observation that to be presented with an unending series of challenges is the “new normal” in infection control and prevention. Collaboration is more important than ever in health care, she said, and “there is strength in our combined efforts.”

Cathryn Murphy, PhD, RN, CIC, in accepting APIC’s highest infection prevention award, added that trust, friendship, and passion are essential if these efforts are to succeed.

‘I’m not at Ground Zero. I’m in Dallas.’ The highlight of the opening session was a fascinating conversation with key U.S. players in the Ebola crisis. Seema Yasmin, MD, a former CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer and now a staff writer at the Dallas Morning News, described how hard it had been to convey accurate information in the midst of rising public hysteria in the U.S.

As an epidemiologist, Yasmin became an interview subject as well as reporter. She recalled that, after months of worrying about colleagues at risk in West Africa, a reporter asked her, “How does it feel to be at Ebola Ground Zero?” Her reply: “I’m not at Ground Zero. I’m in Dallas.”

Later in the conference, Dr. Yasmin reminded the audience that every disaster drill should include a “public information” component and warned that “misinformation spreads much quicker than a virus” in today’s media environment, adding that we “can’t repeat the same [accurate, informative] message often enough.”

Practice drills vs. the real thing. Philip W. Smith, MD, medical director of the Biocontainment Unit at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, described the unit staff’s experiences in treating Ebola. UNMC’s special unit was built more than 10 years ago after the devastating SARS outbreak in Canada that left 33 dead, including several health care workers. Until Ebola cases arrived in the U.S., the unit had been used for training and occasional patient overflow. Dr. Smith emphasized that, even while the unit was not being used, their mantra was “drill, drill, drill” to ensure that staff would function expertly when this specialty care was needed.

Then, in August of 2014, “Suddenly, nine years of drills had to be translated into reality, and there was not much room for error.” He spoke of how inserting a central line while wearing three pairs of gloves, a face shield, and maximal personal protective equipment (PPE) topped by a sterile gown was a very different challenge from repeated practice runs of the same procedure.

Dr. Smith also noted that the transport of patients with Ebola—airlifting from West Africa, ambulance transport, and movement through the hospital to the unit—was “enormously complex and time-consuming.” A special incident command structure was set up just for transport, in addition to the main hospital incident command center.

A horizontal culture was also vital to their work. “There was no hierarchy,” he said. Cultivating a “classless society,” staff developed a strong sense of team under stressful conditions where they were responsible for each other’s safety.

Nonhierarchical work habits stayed with staff after the unit was closed and they returned to their regular assignments. However, when they continued to make “best practice” suggestions to coworkers, they were met with anger and pushback instead of the thanks and cooperation that had been the norm in the Biocontainment Unit. Read the rest of this entry ?

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AJN July Issue: Hepatitis Update, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Nursing’s Blind Spots, More

July 1, 2015

World_Hepatitis_Day_AJN_July_CoverOn the cover of AJN‘s July issue is the 2015 logo for World Hepatitis Day, which takes place on July 28. About 400 million people around the globe live with viral hepatitis, a disease that kills 1.4 million people every year—approximately 4,000 a day. While incidences of hepatitis A and B have declined in the United States in recent years, hepatitis C infection, formerly stable or in decline, has risen at an alarming rate. To learn more about hepatitis in the U.S.—and the role nurses can play in prevention and treatment—read our July CE, “Viral Hepatitis: New U.S. Screening Recommendations, Assessment Tools, and Treatments.”

The article reviews the epidemiology and diagnosis of viral hepatitis, new screening recommendations and innovations in assessment and treatment, and an updated action plan from the Department of Health and Human Services, in which nurses can play an important role in the coordination of care.

Some other articles of note in the June issue:

• CE feature: “Nursing Management of Patients with Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome.” An often debilitating condition, Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (EDS) refers to a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders that has historically been misunderstood and underdiagnosed due to a lack of familiarity with its signs and symptoms. As awareness and recognition of the syndrome improve, nurses are increasingly likely to care for patients with EDS. This article gives an overview of the syndrome and provides guidance on ways to manage symptoms, recognize and prevent serious complications, and improve patients’ quality of life. Read the rest of this entry ?

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Surveys Aside, One Crucial Precondition for Real Patient Satisfaction

June 29, 2015

callbellBy Amanda Anderson, a critical care nurse and graduate student in New York City currently doing a graduate placement at AJN

During this hospital stay, after you pressed the call button, how often did you get help as soon as you wanted it?
1. Never
2. Sometimes
3. Usually
4. Always
5. I never pressed the call button

Everyone is talking about patient satisfaction these days. Purposeful rounding, responsiveness, and customer service are discussed in meetings, on blogs, and in conversations at work. An entire science has been created out of satisfaction, with whole journals devoted to patient experience and paid officers tracking scores and strategies. Since hospital reimbursement is linked to how happy patients are, we’ve suddenly gotten serious about satisfaction.

But behind the sterile questions on the HCAHPS survey, real stories about real people reside. I find myself often forgetting the flesh and blood that’s represented by each checked box, and am learning to realize that, while satisfaction is something to be striven for, dissatisfaction is something to be learned from.

In a series of posts, starting with this one, I’ll share stories of my own missteps—ones that may have caused my patients to answer never instead of always to questions about my care. The events described here helped me realize that, score or no score, responding to call bells actually matters at the human level:

Sarah was a difficult patient. Not even five years my senior, she looked five times older than us both. Sarah had a cache of needs that most of my colleagues found infuriating, but she was also deathly ill from a congenital disease, and hooked up to the most complex monitoring devices the ICU had available, making it almost impossible for her to find a position of comfort. The other nurses whispered. They refused to take her as their assigned patient, and rolled their eyes at Sarah’s requests and her steadily ringing call bell.

As a young nursing student, I had a professor tell me that whenever a patient presses a call bell multiple times, they’re doing so for two reasons. If the obvious reason—bathroom assistance, pain medicine, thirst—were the only reason, they’d likely stop calling at some point. However, patients who constantly call may be using the call bell to say something their voice, and their tangible requests, cannot—that they are afraid, don’t trust their care, or feel better with a nurse present.

My professor gave an all-money-back-guaranteed solution: solve every physical need in a timely or upfront way, and then set care intervals: intentionally tell your patient you will return in a set amount of time, and then keep your appointment. Promise again, deliver on the promise, and repeat at increasingly longer intervals, until they no longer call.

As a new nurse, I tried this, and it worked like magic. It always worked, in fact, so it became how I always patterned my care. Patients like Sarah didn’t bother me—I knew her reputation for frequently calling, so I started my first shift with her by being overwhelmingly present. I pulled up a chair and introduced myself. I began by asking her what she wanted from me during our time together, what she expected, and what she needed.

She grew to trust me, not because I always came when she called, but because I made her an active part of her care, and I helped her to see that I was proactive in meeting her needs. Also following my professor’s advice, I set limits with Sarah, but they were soft limits–“I’ll come back in 15 minutes, okay?”

This didn’t mean she stopped calling me; it just meant she called me purposefully, because I also attended to her subliminal need to call.

She didn’t want her hair combed or her bed changed, as much as she wanted to sleep and be pain free. But her care expectations were rigorous, and I answered, and bargained, and advocated, and propped, and pulled up, to make sure that her pain was gone and she felt safe under my watch. So, after a time, when Sarah did call, I ran, because I knew she really needed me. Our agreed-upon schedule kept me in and out of her room so often that the unsolicited sound of her bell rang like an alarm.

Because I was able to push past her “neediness” and see it for what it was, I got assigned to her all the time, and I got to know her as a person. Sarah’s voice sung like a tiny yellow bird, and she was smart. We talked about real life things, joked about her stack of bills—“Last time you looked at those, you got tachycardic; please take it easy tonight”—and began to know and respect each other far beyond the nurse–patient level.

One night, I came in to find Sarah assigned as one of my patients. I said my hellos, asked her what was up, settled her in, sharing her hopes that she’d be able to sleep. My other patient, a change-of-shift admission, needed my minutes more urgently, so I couldn’t spend my usual time chatting at Sarah’s bedside to start my shift.

This new patient had a serious infection, was smothered under a bipap mask, and painfully anxious. She squirmed as I worked, swatting at the mask, confused about my instruction to relax and be still. My patience was slight with her—I had too much to do trying to save her life and little time for the tenderness I bestowed on sick-but-stable Sarah.

As I struggled with her confusion, which affected my ability to administer her ordered care, I ran through my new patient’s orders. Penicillin stuck out. I knew that an order for antibiotics was crucial, but I thought penicillin a rare choice to make in the land of high-powered antibiotics like vancomycin and Zosyn that I so frequently gave in the medical ICU. I checked her allergies and penicillin wasn’t one of them.

But this “hmm” moment shot up a tiny red flag in my mind—first dose, watch for reaction. I made a plan to stay in the room while the bag infused, even though it wasn’t required and I had plenty of other things I needed to run for.

My new patient was already confused, but her mood changed almost as soon as the penicillin hit her bloodstream. She flushed and scratched at her chest, and from under her bipap mask, I heard her moan. I knew what this was, and was glad for the extra caution I’d taken. I stopped the penicillin, broke the seal of the mask on her face, and she answered the question I was about to ask: “I’m itching! I’m itching!”

With saline flushing in its place, I pitched the penicillin. Benadryl, steroids, cool air, a break from the bipap, an assessment from the resident, and my new patient immediately improved. With oxygen running in a high-flow mask, she held my hand and we breathed together. I could still see the redness in the soft tissues of her neck, but its spread soon slowed. The worst was over, but there was no way I’d leave her side until I was sure that the reaction had fully subsided.
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