Archive for the ‘Nursing research’ Category

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Breathing Training May Ease Depression in Dialysis Patients: Study Findings

April 7, 2015

By Sylvia Foley, AJN senior editor

It’s estimated that depression afflicts between 25% and 50% of people who have chronic kidney disease. And depression has been associated with numerous adverse outcomes in this population, including poor sleep, reduced quality of life, and higher rates of hospitalization and death. Researchers Siou-Hung Tsai and colleagues wanted to know whether teaching patients a basic relaxation technique—deep, slow breathing—could alleviate depressive symptoms.

To learn more, they developed a four-week intervention and conducted a trial. The intervention included instruction by a dialysis nurse trained in deep breathing techniques, additional audio device–guided instruction, and guided exercises. The authors report on their findings in this month’s CE–Original Research feature, “The Efficacy of a Nurse-Led Breathing Training Program in Reducing Depressive Symptoms in Patients on Hemodialysis.” Here’s a brief summary.

Objectives: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of a nurse-led, in-center breathing training program in reducing depressive symptoms and improving sleep quality and health-related quality of life in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.
Methods: Fifty-seven patients on hemodialysis were randomly assigned either to an eight-session breathing training group or to a control group. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Medical Outcome Studies 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess self-reported depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life, respectively.
Results: The intervention group exhibited significantly greater decreases in BDI-II scores than did the control group. No significant differences in PSQI change scores were observed between the groups. SF-36 change scores for both the domain of role limitation due to emotional problems and the mental component summary were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group.
Conclusion: This intervention significantly alleviated depressive symptoms, reduced perceived role limitation due to emotional problems, and improved the overall mental health component of quality of life in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

Pointing to the intervention’s simple design and ease of implementation, the authors note that it offers nurses “a novel way to relieve depression in and offer psychological support to a vulnerable population.” For more details, read the article, which is free online.

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Have You Fallen Prey to a Predatory Publisher?

April 6, 2015

Predatory publishers promise prompt, easy publication. The hidden charges come later, as well as the realization that the journal has no real standing or quality control. Not only is this bad for potential authors, it’s bad for knowledge, flooding the market with inferior information made to superficially resemble the information you need.

Imagine this scenario: You receive an email from a seemingly respectable journal inviting you to submit a paper for publication. You’ve wanted to publish on this topic for some time, and this journal promises you a quick review and publication within a few months. As a new author, you are thrilled . . . that is, until you get charged an outrageous processing fee upon turning the article in. You’ve just fallen victim to a predatory publisher.

Unfortunately, this scenario is becoming all too common. These journals are often difficult to spot, with their professional-looking Web sites and names that sound legitimate, if a little vague. In fact, just recently at AJN, we stumbled across a Web site featuring a journal that looked a lot like ours and had a very similar name. (Jeffrey Beall, a librarian at the University of Colorado, has been tracking predatory publishers since 2009 and maintains a list of them on his Web site, Scholarly Open Access.)

shawnkennedyIn our April issue, editor-in-chief Shawn Kennedy tackles this topic in her editorial, “Predatory Publishing Is No Joke.” As Kennedy explains, predatory publishers “take advantage of the relatively new open access model in publishing,” in which authors “pay the publisher a fee in order to make their article freely available or ‘open’ to all.” Read the rest of this entry ?

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AJN in April: Deep Breathing for Dialysis Patients, Isolation Care, Sleep Loss in Nurses, More

March 27, 2015

AJN0415.Cover.OnlineOn our cover this month is Pablo Picasso’s Le Rêve (The Dream). We chose this portrait of a woman in a restful pose to highlight the importance of proper sleep to a person’s overall health and well-being. Unfortunately, not many Americans are able to get the proper amount of rest. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) estimates that 50 to 70 million U.S. adults have chronic sleep and wakefulness disorders—and nurses are not immune.

Between long shifts and the stressful nature of their jobs, nurses are especially vulnerable to not getting an adequate amount of quality sleep. Fatigue from lack of sleep may diminish the quality of nursing care. Sleep loss has been linked to impaired learning, memory, and judgment and is also associated with a slew of chronic diseases. This month’s CE feature, “The Potential Effects of Sleep Loss on a Nurse’s Health,” describes the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss on nurses, strategies nurses can use to improve the quality of their sleep, and institutional policies that can promote good rest and recuperation.

This feature offers 2 CE credits to those who take the test that follows the article. You can further explore this topic by listening to a podcast interview with the author (this and other free podcasts are accessible via the Behind the Article podcasts page on our Web site, in our iPad app, or on iTunes).

Deep breathing for dialysis patients. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) generally has a poor prognosis and often causes poor sleep quality, reduced quality of life, and is associated with high rates of hospitalization. It’s no surprise that an estimated 25%–50% of patients with CKD suffer from depression. This month’s original research CE, “The Efficacy of a Nurse-Led Breathing Training Program in Reducing Depressive Symptoms in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” examines the efficacy of a nurse-led breathing training program in reducing depression and improving quality of sleep in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. This feature article offers 2.5 CE credits to those who take the test that follows the article. Read the rest of this entry ?

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AJN in March: Post-ICU Syndrome, Workplace Conflict Resolution, Prostate Cancer Options, More

February 27, 2015

AJN0315.Cover.OnlineAJN’s March issue is now available on our Web site. Here’s a selection of what not to miss.

New program for postintensive care syndrome (PICS). With increased ICU survival rates, we are seeing more complex cognitive, physical, and psychological sequelae. The authors of “Critical Care Recovery Center: An Innovative Collaborative Care Model for ICU Survivors” share how they created and implemented an evidence-based collaborative care program for ICU survivors to reduce morbidities that can affect their quality of life. This CE feature offers 2.5 CE credits to those who take the test that follows the article.

Helping men with localized prostate cancer make informed decisions. The information men receive at diagnosis of prostate cancer can be overwhelming. “Early Localized Prostate Cancer” reviews the multiple treatment options available for men with newly diagnosed, low-risk, localized prostate cancer and explains how nurses can help these men make informed decisions. This CE feature offers 2.5 CE credits to those who take the test that follows the article.

Further explore this topic by listening to a podcast interview with the author (this and other free podcasts are accessible via the Behind the Article podcasts page on our Web site, in our iPad app, or on iTunes). Read the rest of this entry ?

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Paired Glucose Testing With Telehealth Support to Empower Type 2 Diabetes Patients

February 13, 2015

Jacob Molyneux, senior editor

bloodglucosetestingType 2 diabetes is challenging for those trying to meet blood glucose target ranges, often requiring one or more daily medications, increases in exercise, changes in eating habits, and self-monitoring of glucose level. Those who are willing and able to learn about factors affecting their glucose level and to make small daily efforts in one or more areas have the potential to radically improve their sense of control over their diabetes.

This month’s Diabetes Under Control column, “Better Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Using Paired Testing and Remote Monitoring” (free until April 1), presents a successful story of patient engagement in diabetes self-management. It describes the case of a participant in a clinical trial who, with clinician support, incorporated paired glucose testing (self-testing before and after meals) and telehealth (remote patient monitoring, or RPM).

The article is easy to follow and gives a series of biweekly updates on the patient’s progress. Before the study starts, she’s not very engaged in self-management. For example, she’s only testing her own glucose level three to four times a month. To get a sense of how much more empowered she’s come to feel by week 12 of the protocol, consider this brief excerpt: Read the rest of this entry ?

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A Nursing Conference Focused on Quality and Safety, and a Big ‘What If?’

February 9, 2015

2015ANAQualityConferenceBanner600x100
By Maureen ‘Shawn’ Kennedy, AJN editor-in-chief

“What would quality in hospitals look like if health care institutions were as single-minded about serving clients as the Disney organization?”

Last week I attended the 2015 American Nurses Association Quality Conference in Orlando. The conference, which had its origins in the annual National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) conference, drew close to 1,000 attendees. Here’s a quick overview of hot topics and the keynote speech by the new Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs, plus a note on an issue crucial to health care quality that I wish I’d heard more about during the conference.

Most sessions presented quality improvement (QI) projects and many were well done. There were some topics I hadn’t seen covered all that much, such as reducing the discomfort of needlesticks, enhancing postop bowel recovery, and promoting sleep. But projects aimed at preventing central line infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and pressure ulcers ruled the sessions. These of course are among the hospital-associated conditions that might cause a hospital to be financially penalized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The ANA also had a couple of sessions on preventing CAUTIs by means of a tool it developed in the Partnership for Patients initiative of the CMS to reduce health care–associated infections.

The keynote by Robert McDonald, the fairly new Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs, touted the services and resources available for the 9 million veterans who access care through the VA system. He surprised me and—if the murmuring I heard around me was any indication—a lot of others when he reported that patients in the VA system rated their care higher than did patients at general hospitals. The comment from an attendee: “Well, I guess it’s good once you get an appointment.”

He said the VA was “using the crisis of last year to move forward” and acknowledged that improving access was a priority, noting that the VA has hired 1,578 nurses since last year.

What if? It seemed appropriate that a meeting focused on quality took place at a venue known for its high quality customer focus. What would quality in hospitals look like if health care institutions were as single-minded about serving clients as the Disney organization? I’m not talking about the superficial attempts some hospitals implement, like valet parking or blazer-wearing patient service representatives. Read the rest of this entry ?

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System Barriers to RN Activation of Rapid Response Teams: New Evidence

February 6, 2015

By Sylvia Foley, AJN senior editor

Rapid response teams (RRTs) in acute care facilities are there to decrease mortality from preventable complications. But there is evidence that RRT systems “aren’t working as designed, particularly with regard to problems in the activation stage,” according to nurse researcher Jane Saucedo Braaten.

Figure 1. Five Domains of Cognitive Work Analysis and Corresponding Study Questions

Figure 1. Five Domains of Cognitive Work Analysis and Corresponding Study Questions (click image to enlarge)

Interested in how hospital system factors influence RNs’ activation behavior, Braaten decided to investigate further. She reports on her findings in this month’s CE–Original Research feature, “Hospital System Barriers to Rapid Response Team Activation: A Cognitive Work Analysis.” Here’s a summary.

Purpose: To use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical–surgical nurses’ RRT activation behavior.
Methods:
Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems and was used as the organizing element of the study. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical–surgical nurses and document review.
Results: Many system factors affected participants’ activation decisions. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to “handle” these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT team. The need for justification led to delays in RRT activation.
Conclusions: Although it’s generally thought that RRTs are activated without hesitation, this study found the opposite was true. All of the aforementioned constraints increase the cognitive processing load on the nurse. The value of the RRT could be increased by modifying these constraints—in particular, by lifting the need to justify calls, improving protocols, and broadening the range of culturally acceptable triggers—and by involving the RRT earlier in patient cases through discussion, consultation, and collaboration.

Read the rest of this entry ?

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